UPSTREAM / DOWNSTREAM SALES Definition

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UPSTREAM / DOWNSTREAM SALES is normally associated with inter-company sales: Upstream is a subsidiary selling into the parent entity; while downstream is the parent selling into a subsidiary.

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RETURN ON ASSETS (ROA) shows the after tax earnings of assets. Return on assets is an indicator of how profitable a company is. Use this ratio annually to compare a business performance to the industry norms: The higher the ratio the greater the return on assets. However this has to be balanced against such factors as risk, sustainability and reinvestment in the business through development costs. 

Higher ROA is better, but extremely high ROA may be an indicator of vulnerability as to any sustainable competitive advantage.

Formula: Earnings After Tax (EAITDA) / Total Assets

LONG TERM DEBT is all senior debt, including bonds, debentures, bank debt, mortgages, deferred portions of long term debt, and capital lease obligations. If a firm shows little to no long term debt over the years and/or their earning power could allow them to pay off their long term debt within 3-4 years, it is a good indicator of a sustainable competitive advantage.

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