UPSTREAM / DOWNSTREAM SALES is normally associated with inter-company sales: Upstream is a subsidiary selling into the parent entity; while downstream is the parent selling into a subsidiary.
REVENUE RECOGNITION is the process of recording revenue, under one of the various acceptable methods, in the accounting period. In each period of revenue recognition, all related expenses should be matched to revenue. The most common method of recognizing revenue is at the time of sale or provisioning of service.
HARD COSTS is the purchase price of actual assets. For example, the purchase price of a new printing press would be the hard cost. The soft costs are additional fees for items like factoring-invoiced installation, prepaid and extended warranties, or service contracts for the new equipment.
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