VALUATION ALLOWANCE/RESERVE is an allowance to provide for changes in the value of a companys assets, such as depreciation or if an asset is deemed impaired.
DOUBLE ACCOUNTING is the un-intentional, or sometimes fraudulently intentional, double counting of assets or liabilities, or any other datasets, which, in the end, give an inaccurate view of what the data really means. In accounting, this is usually caused by a multiplicity of entries of the same data which, in the end, causes confusion or financial reporting inaccuracies.
STABLE UNIT OF MEASURE, in accounting, assumes that money is used as the basic measuring unit for financial reporting. Money is the common denominator in which accounting measurements are made and summarized. The dollar, or any other monetary unit, represents a unit of value; that is, it reflects an ability to command goods and services. Implicit in the use of money as a measuring unit is the assumption that the dollar is a stable unit of value, just as the kilometer is a stable unit of distance and the hectare is a stable unit of area.
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