VALUATION ALLOWANCE/RESERVE is an allowance to provide for changes in the value of a companys assets, such as depreciation or if an asset is deemed impaired.
SPOT COMMODITY is a commodity traded with the expectation that it will actually be delivered to the buyer, as contrasted with to a FUTURES CONTRACT that will usually expire without any physical delivery actually taking place. Spot commodities are traded in the SPOT MARKET.
ARGUMENT IN ACCOUNTING usually revolves around the premise that characterizes fair values of assets as being more relevant but less reliable than their historical costs, with fair value being ultimately more informative only if its increased relevance outweighs its reduced reliability.
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