VALUE CHAIN Definition

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VALUE CHAIN is the sequential set of primary and support activities that an enterprise performs to turn inputs into value-added outputs for its external customers. As developed by Michael E. Porter, it is a connected series of organizations, resources, and knowledge streams involved in the creation and delivery of value to end customers. Value systems integrate supply chain activities, from determination of customer needs through product/service development, production/operations and distribution, including (as appropriate) first-, second-, and third-tier suppliers. The objective of value systems is to position organizations in the supply chain to achieve the highest levels of customer satisfaction and value while effectively exploiting the competencies of all organizations in the supply chain.

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VENDOR MANAGED INVENTORY (VMI) is a process in which a supplier generates orders for its distributor based on demand information sent by the distributor. Vendor Managed Inventory was first applied to the grocery industry, between companies like Procter & Gamble (supplier) and Wal-Mart (distributor). But increasingly, Vendor Managed Inventory is providing the benefits of smoother demand, increased sales, lower inventories and reduced costs to other industries.

DEBT MANAGEMENT RATIO examine the degree to which a firm uses debt financing or financial leverages.

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