VALUE CHAIN Definition

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VALUE CHAIN is the sequential set of primary and support activities that an enterprise performs to turn inputs into value-added outputs for its external customers. As developed by Michael E. Porter, it is a connected series of organizations, resources, and knowledge streams involved in the creation and delivery of value to end customers. Value systems integrate supply chain activities, from determination of customer needs through product/service development, production/operations and distribution, including (as appropriate) first-, second-, and third-tier suppliers. The objective of value systems is to position organizations in the supply chain to achieve the highest levels of customer satisfaction and value while effectively exploiting the competencies of all organizations in the supply chain.

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CALL can be 1. process of redeeming a bond or preferred stock issue before its normal maturity. A security with a call provision typically is issued at an interest rate higher than one without a call provision. Investors look at yield-to-call rather than yield-to-maturity; 2. right to buy 100 shares of stock at a specified price within a specified period; or, 3. option to buy (call) an asset at a specified price within a specified period.

INDENTURE is an agreement between lender and borrower which details specific terms of the bond issuance. Specifies legal obligations of bond issuer and rights of bondholders. There is usually a indenture document spelling out the specific terms of a bond as well as the rights and responsibilities of both the issuer of the security and the holder.

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