VALUE FOR MONEY is in the perception of the buyer or receiver of goods and/or services. Proof of good value for money is in believing or concluding that the goods/services received was worth the price paid. Examples of the types of factors that may be considered are suitability, quality, skills, price, whole of life costs and other criteria. The mix of these and other factors and the relevant importance of each will vary on a case by case basis.
INCOME THEORIES try to identify the real profit of an organization. The difficulty here is that you need to define whose income you are measuring, and that limiting income measurements to things that can be given a price devalues goods and services that are difficult or impossible to price.
PIPE (Private Investment in Public Equity) refers to any private placement of securities of an already-public company that is made to selected accredited investors (usually to selected institutional accredited investors) wherein investors enter into a purchase agreement committing them to purchase securities and, usually, requiring the issuer to file a resale registration statement covering the resale from time to time of the securities the investors purchased in the private placement. PIPE transactions may involve the sale of common stock, convertible preferred stock, convertible debentures, warrants, or other equity or equity-like securities of an already-public company. There are a number of common PIPE transactions, including:
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