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VARIANCE ANALYSIS is the analysis of performance by means of variances. Used to promote management action at the earliest possible stages. After a budget (based on standard costs) has been set, its usefulness lies in the review procedures which compare actual results against the budget. Variance analysis is the process of examining in detail each variance between actual and budgeted/expected/standard costs to determine the reasons why budgeted results were not met (material costs too high, sales prices too low, etc.).

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CASH IN ADVANCE is when full payment is due before the merchandise is shipped. Least risk to seller, most risk to buyer.

STATEMENT OF RETAINED EARNINGS is one of the four basic financial statements; the Statement of Retained Earnings is a reconciliation of the Retained Earnings account. Information such as dividends or announced income is provided in the statement. The Statement of Retained Earnings provides information about what a companys management is doing with the companys earnings.

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