VENTURE CAPITAL is capital committed to an unproven venture. The initial, start-up money is referred to as "seed money" and entails the greatest risk. If the project gets off the ground it may require additional financing at additional "rounds" or the "mezzanine level" before the company is finally brought to the market and the venture capitalist can enjoy handsome rewards. Experienced investors in venture capital situations typically plan on turning away a minimum of 9 out of every 10 proposals which are brought to them, and then they expect as many failures as successes from their selected investments.
STOCK SALE is where the equity price is assumed to include the operating assets and operating liabilities of the sellers business and not include the long term liabilities assumed. The long term liabilities assumed are shown as a separate line item and when added to the equity price results in the deal price. In those transactions indicated as an asset sale the equity price is assumed to include the operating assets.
TRADE SPENDING is that marketing expense directed towards brand building, e.g. promotional allowances, slotting, and advertisements. Total expenditure often represents 20-25% or more of total sales and is a significant expenditure for any size company. Managing this investment more wisely and reducing any fraction of a percentage of these dollars is vital.
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