VERTICAL INTEGRATION Definition

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VERTICAL INTEGRATION is the extent to which a firm owns its upstream suppliers and its downstream buyers. Control upstream is referred to as backward integration (towards suppliers of raw material), while control of activities downstream (towards the eventual buyer) is referred to as forward integration.

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COST EFFECTIVE is when a judgment is made that something is economical in terms of the goods or services received for the money spent.

CURRENT DEBT TO TOTAL DEBT shows Current Liabilities as a percent of Total Debt. Smaller firms carry proportionally higher level of current debt to total debt than larger firms. Formula: Total Current Liabilities / Total Liabilities

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