VERTICAL INTEGRATION Definition

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VERTICAL INTEGRATION is the extent to which a firm owns its upstream suppliers and its downstream buyers. Control upstream is referred to as backward integration (towards suppliers of raw material), while control of activities downstream (towards the eventual buyer) is referred to as forward integration.

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AMORTIZATION EXPENSE is the allocation to expenses of the cost of an intangible asset such as goodwill, a patent, bond issue costs, etc.

DEFERRED MAINTENANCE is asset maintenance that was not performed when it should have been or was scheduled to be performed and was delayed until a future period, i.e. in most cases it is a nice way to say that the asset has not been kept up and is depreciating both in value and physically.

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