WITHOLDING, dependent upon application, is: a. income tax withheld from employees wages and paid directly to the government by the employer; or, b. a tax deducted from dividends on investments which are paid to foreign investors. This can be claimed back if there is a Double Taxation Agreement in place between the countries. See WITHHOLDING TAX.
INTEGRITY is consistent adherence to an ethical code. If client management lacks integrity the auditor must be more skeptical than usual.
PERVASIVENESS OF ESTIMATES means that the estimates have to be complete, of high quality and in depth, i.e., they have to adequately cover the whole accounting entity.
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