WORKING CAPITAL (WC) is current assets minus current liabilities; also called net current assets or current capital. It measures the margin of protection for current creditors. It reflects the ability to finance current operations.
OPERATING EXPENSE TO SALES reports the operating expenses as a percent of Net Revenues. This then is a measure of the total overhead employed in the firm per Net Sales Revenue Dollar; thereby giving an indication of the efficiency of the cost structure of the company. It gives an indication of the ability of a business to convert income into profit. Generally, businesses with low ratios will generate more profit than others. In general business operations with larger and more stable cash flows can sustain higher ratios than smaller and less stable operations. Scale and income stability are important considerations though it is up to the management of a business to monitor costs in an appropriate manner whatever its size. Formula: Total Overhead Cash Expense / Net Revenues
BOND INSURANCE is insurance purchased by bond issuers to guarantee the timely payment of principal and interest, primarily for municipal bond issues. The Municipal Bond Investment Assurance Corp. (MBIA), Federal Guarantee Insurance Corp. (FGIC) and AMBAC Indemnity Corp. (AMBAC) are among the largest insurers. Insured bonds are rated AAA.
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