YIELD VARIANCE is the effect of varying the total input of a factor of production; e.g., direct materials or labor; while holding constant the input mix, i.e. the proportions of the types of materials or labor utilized, and the weighted average unit price of the factor of production.

PROFIT MARGIN ON SALES is: a. Gross Profit Margin on Sales = Gross Profit/Sales * 100; or, b. Net Profit Margin on Sales = Net Profit After Tax/Sales * 100. See also GROSS PROFIT MARGIN ON SALES.

KAIZEN COSTING means "improvements in small steps" (i.e., continuous improvement). It was developed in Japan by Yashuhiro Monden. Kaizen Costing is applied to product that it already under production.

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