YIELD VARIANCE is the effect of varying the total input of a factor of production; e.g., direct materials or labor; while holding constant the input mix, i.e. the proportions of the types of materials or labor utilized, and the weighted average unit price of the factor of production.
VERTICAL INTEGRATION is the extent to which a firm owns its upstream suppliers and its downstream buyers. Control upstream is referred to as backward integration (towards suppliers of raw material), while control of activities downstream (towards the eventual buyer) is referred to as forward integration.
CASH COVERAGE RATIO see CASH DEBT COVERAGE RATIO.
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