ACCOUNTING THEORY tries to describe the role of accounting and is composed of four types of accounting theory: classical inductive theories, income theories, decision usefulness theories, and information economics / agency theories: a. Classical inductive theories are attempts to find the principles on which current accounting processes are based; b. Income theories try to identify the real profit of an organization; c. Decision usefulness theories attempt to describe accounting as a process of providing the relevant information to the relevant decision makers; and, d. The information economics / agency theories of accounting see accounting information as a good to be traded between rational agents each acting in their own self-interest.
EXISTENCE, in accounting, deals with whether assets or liabilities exist at a given date. For example, management asserts that finished goods inventories in the balance sheet are available for sale.
OFF-BALANCE SHEET is not fully documented accounting transactions that can potentially incur risks of loss that are not fully transparent to investors.
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