ALTMAN Z-SCORE reliably predicts whether or not a company is likely to enter into bankruptcy within one or two years: If the Z-Score is 3.0 or above - bankruptcy is not likely. If the Z-Score is 1.8 or less - bankruptcy is likely.A Z-Score between 1.8 and 3.0 is the gray area, i.e., a high degree of caution should be used. Probabilities of bankruptcy within the above ranges are 95% for one year and 70% within two years. A Z-Score between the two is the gray area. Obviously a higher Z-Score is desirable. It is best to assess each individual companys Z-Score against that of the industry. In low margin industries it is possible for Z-Scores to fall below the above. In such cases a trend comparison to the industry over consecutive time periods may be a better indicator. It should be remembered that a Z-Score is only as valid as the data from which it was derived i.e. if a company has altered or falsified their financial records/books, a Z-Score derived from those "cooked books" is of lesser use.
INSIDERS are all persons who come into possession of material inside information before its public release. In securities, insiders are such persons who are controlling shareholders, directors, officers, managers and employees, including spouse, parents, siblings and those under the control of insiders as well as persons induced by such persons who come into possession of material inside information.
CHARTERED ACCOUNTANT (CA) is a British accountant who is a member of the Institute of Chartered Accountants. They work in many areas of business and the public sector, in roles ranging from sole practitioner to chief executive of a multinational company. In public practice firms, they provide professional services to a wide range of fee paying clients from private individuals to large commercial and public sector organizations, including banks. The seservices include audit/assurance, accountancy, tax, business advisory, management consultancy, systems and IT,corporate finance, corporate recovery and forensic accounting. In commerce/industry and the public sector, they work in a variety of roles including fund management, venture capital and equity analysis, as well as financial management and financial reporting roles.
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