BOTTOM-UP APPROACH TO INVESTING is an investment approach that first seeks individual companies with attractive investment potential, then proceeds to a consideration of the larger economic and industry trends affecting those companies. See TOP-DOWN APPROACH TO INVESTING.
RETAINED EARNINGS are profits of the business that have not been paid out to the owners as of the balance sheet date. The earnings have been "retained" for use in the business (Retained Earnings is an account in the equity section of the balance sheet). It is comprised of the balance, either debit or credit, of appropriated or unappropriated earnings of an entity that are retained in the business. A good rate of growth in retained earnings is an indicator that the firm enjoys a sustainable competitive advantage. NOTE: Appropriated earnings are not available for dividends, but may be used to reduce a deficit or may be transferred to stated capital. Other appropriations of profits require a vote of the shareholders.
RETURN OF CAPITAL is the distribution of cash that resulted from tax savings on depreciation, sale of a capital asset or securities, or any other sources unrelated to retained earnings.
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