VALUE ADDED VERTICAL INTEGRATION Definition

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VALUE ADDED VERTICAL INTEGRATION is controlling as much of the build stream, both upstream and downstream, in producing a product or service as possible while ensuring that every part of the stream provides added value. See also VALUE ADDED and VERTICAL INTEGRATION.

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GROSS PROFIT MARGIN ANALYSIS indicates what the companys pricing policy is and what the true mark-up margins are. Calculated by: Revenue - Cost of Goods Sold / Revenue. See GROSS PROFIT MARGIN ON SALES for more in-depth definition.

MODEL B Z-SCORE (For Private General Firm) Model B Z-Score is appropriate for a private general non-manufacturing firm. A Z-Score of 2.60 or above indicates that bankruptcy in not likely, buyt a Z-Score of 1.10 or below is a strong indicator that bankruptcy is likely. Probabilities of bankruptcy within the above ranges are 95% for one year and 70% within two years. A Z-Score between the two is the gray area. Obviously a higher Z-Score is desirable.

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